Acute back pain is a common condition, and evidence-based management focuses on relieving pain, promoting recovery, and preventing recurrence. Here are some evidence-based recommendations for the management of acute back pain:
Education and Reassurance:
Providing education about the nature of acute back pain, emphasizing its usually self-limiting course, and reassuring patients that serious underlying conditions are rare can help reduce fear and anxiety.
Encouraging early return to normal activities and avoiding prolonged bed rest is supported by evidence. Movement and activity help prevent muscle stiffness and reduce the risk of chronic disability.
Specific exercises can be beneficial for acute back pain. Core-strengthening exercises, stretching, and low-impact aerobic activities have been shown to improve symptoms. Physical therapy may be recommended to guide patients in appropriate exercises.
Non-prescription pain medications, such as paracetemol or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can be used for pain relief. However, their use should be in accordance with medical advice and guidelines.
Heat and Cold Therapy:
The application of heat or cold may provide relief for some individuals. Cold packs can help reduce inflammation, while heat packs can relax muscles. The choice between heat and cold often depends on personal preference and what feels more comfortable.
Manipulation, massage, and spinal mobilisation have shown benefit for acute back pain. However, it's essential to seek these interventions from qualified healthcare professionals.
Addressing psychosocial factors, such as stress and emotional well-being, can be crucial. Cognitive-behavioural therapy and other psychosocial interventions may complement physical treatments.
In some cases, short-term use of muscle relaxants or analgesic medications may be prescribed. However, their use should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Early Return to Work:
Encouraging a gradual return to work, if feasible, has been shown to be beneficial. Prolonged work absences can sometimes contribute to the development of chronic back pain.
In complex cases, a multidisciplinary approach involving collaboration between healthcare professionals such as physicians, physical therapists, and psychologists may be beneficial.
It's important to note that the management of acute back pain should be individualised, and these recommendations may not be suitable for everyone. Individuals experiencing acute back pain should seek advice from a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate treatment plan based on their specific circumstances. If back pain is severe, persistent, or associated with other concerning symptoms, prompt medical attention is advised.